The hard water is passed first through cation exchange column, which removes all the cations like Ca2+, Mg2+, etc. Ion exchange is a process in which the minerals that cause the water to be hard, usually this would be calcium and magnesium, are removed and replaced with other ions such as sodium and potassium. Thus; 2RH+ + Ca2+ ——–.> R2Ca2+ + 2H+. 0000004208 00000 n ;c�C�:c��L1���3�3>�ȝ����+�&�"��FK�)\o8���Tl����[���`ʺ�Q�1��c(�F�y����\�@�+�2�al�>��$�F�%/�}�E���x_1Lf��PLW��a�d 9�3�3��hq��:�m �c`z��3.0 ��Zg �������u��A�R����Y�6��! 31 63 0000004095 00000 n 0000073632 00000 n 0000063730 00000 n 2RH+ + Mg2+ ——.> R2Mg2+ + 2H+. 0000085953 00000 n endstream endobj 32 0 obj <>>>/Metadata 29 0 R/Outlines 23 0 R/Pages 28 0 R/Type/Catalog/ViewerPreferences<>>> endobj 33 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Tabs/W/Thumb 24 0 R/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 34 0 obj <> endobj 35 0 obj <> endobj 36 0 obj <> endobj 37 0 obj [/ICCBased 67 0 R] endobj 38 0 obj <> endobj 39 0 obj <> endobj 40 0 obj <> endobj 41 0 obj <>stream exchange) process. 0000011983 00000 n Cations refer to positively charged ions dissolved in the water. 0000059947 00000 n %PDF-1.6 %���� The exchange medium can be natural “zeolites” or synthetic resin beads that resemble wet sand. The ion exchange water softening process can remove nearly all calcium and magnesium from source water. }�D�x��y��>(�3�y�����9��|�#�Hx���)�Q�A� Y�,H4�͂d!V��A�������N�'��Y��̇��� ʙ����������������������e��n(n�n. 0000004569 00000 n 0000077071 00000 n Ion exchange is the exchange of charged mobile ions with a fixed ion. Sulfonated coal, developed for industrial water treatment, was the first ion exchange material that was stable at low pH. The first tank is the … h�bbd```b``Q���@$�0�D2��H�E`v�T���`vX/X�3�����!�Y��H�6�$˜��tĞ� lc)��T� 1����{�j�*9t�j@&0��Mc�����+��c'�����xl��%� ��g`�}` � endstream endobj startxref 0 %%EOF 417 0 obj <>stream Generally speaking there are two tanks attached to this kind of water softener. Softeners may also remove as much as 5-10 ppm (parts per million; ppm is equal to milligrams per liter, or mg/L) of iron and manganese. The Ion Exchange Process Calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions that cause water hardness can be removed fairly easily by using an ion exchange procedure. Ion-exchange is used extensively in small water systems and individual homes. 0000002736 00000 n H�\��j�@��>��C01q&�I�C�P�0� 0000002172 00000 n Sodium ions are supplied from dissolved sodium chloride salt, also called brine. In the ion exchange process, sodium ions are used to coat an exchange medium in the softener. 0000070975 00000 n trailer 0000031571 00000 n 0000068008 00000 n Ion exchange is most often used in water-softening and other purification and separation processes. 0000066083 00000 n Standard water softeners are cation exchange devices. 0000076688 00000 n 0000009640 00000 n 0000122197 00000 n 0000003523 00000 n 0000021043 00000 n startxref 0000003949 00000 n Ion exchange occurs in a variety of substances and it has been used on an industrial basis since circa 1910 with the introduction of water softening using natural and later, synthetic zeolites. 0000010911 00000 n h�b```b``;���� �� Ā B��,/����u00p�}��7`�(���9E��S�`���N)��M�V?>������E>����Y *e��xr�u~2y)� 2C���2::�|FAAc������ � ��; (���4���b�*e&AF?�z�v χ��эqW? 0000009726 00000 n 0000027061 00000 n 0000045888 00000 n 0000028740 00000 n <<4C5D8B6BBD6DD843BC72A13FB4ECDF94>]/Prev 189924>> 31 0 obj <> endobj 0 0000085682 00000 n 0000009223 00000 n 0000002000 00000 n 0000077530 00000 n u��|��8!� 0000033928 00000 n Contaminants removed by the water softening (ion . 0000128073 00000 n 0000007750 00000 n 0000027870 00000 n 0000047967 00000 n 0000023883 00000 n 0000027444 00000 n 0000036577 00000 n 0000001556 00000 n It has become more popular as more and more homes acquire water softeners to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ from water.

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