Sallie Chisholm et al., “Dis-Crediting Ocean Fertilization,” Science, Vol. ERW also has possible co-beneits for improved food and soil security, and reduced ocean acidiication 2–4. Rainwater and bicarbonate ions eventually end up in the ocean, where they are formed into carbonate minerals by calcifying organisms (Eq.3), which then sinks out of the surface ocean. Marine Cloud Brightening Project: Geoengineering Experiment Briefing, Bio-Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), Geoengineering in the Global South (ETC Podcast), Grounding Teach-In on Geoengineering: A False Solution to the Climate Crisis, Greetings from Ruth Nyambura, HOME Campaign Coordinator. [3] For silicate weathering the theoretical net effect of dissolution and precipitation is 1 mol of CO2 sequestered for every mol of Ca2+ or Mg2+ weathered out of the mineral. Cquestrate, “Detailed description of the idea,” http://www.cquestrate.com/the-idea/detailed-description-of-the-idea/, 14. Kruger was one of the authors promoting a set of principles for governance that have been influential among the geoengineering proponents, including the astonishing notion that geoengineering is a public good. The energy requirements for this technology are substantial. Oxford Geoengineering Programme, “Enhanced Weathering,” http://www.geoengineering.ox.ac.uk/research/oxford-geoengineering-programme-research/enhanced-weathering/, 6. 113–149 Enhanced silicate rock weathering (ERW), deployable with croplands, has potential use for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) removal (CDR), which is now necessary to mitigate anthropogenic climate change 1. Wikipedia, “Nullarbor Plain,” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nullarbor_Plain, When energy inputs such as mining, processing and transportation are included, the overall energy requirement for enhanced weathering is huge. [4][5] Biological activity in soils has been shown to promote the dissolution of silicate minerals (see discussion in,[6] but there is still uncertainty surrounding how quickly this may happen. Therefore, an increase in both carbonate and silicate weathering with respect to carbonate precipitation will result in a buildup of alkalinity in the ocean. Weathering and biological carbonate precipitation are thought to be only loosely coupled on short time periods (<1000 years). See http://www.cquestrate.com and http://www.geoengineering.ox.ac.uk/, 13. Leverhulme Centre for Climate Change Mitigation, “Theme 3 – Applied weathering science,” http://lc3m.org/research/theme-3/, 5. To overcome the limitations of solution saturation and to use natural comminution of sand particles from wave energy, silicate minerals may be applied to coastal environments,[12] although the higher pH of seawater may substantially decrease the rate of dissolution,[13] and it is unclear how much comminution is possible from wave action. Known as enhanced rock weathering, the process involves layering crushed rock onto soil. In areas of up welling this undersaturated water is brought to the surface. ETC Group and Heinrich Böll Foundation, “Geoengineering Map.” map.geoengineeringmonitor.org, The Big Bad Fix: The Case Against Climate Geoengineering, http://etcgroup.org/content/big-bad-fix, 1. [18] This early research investigated the carbonation of extracted and crushed silicates at elevated temperatures (~180 °C) and partial pressures of CO2 (~15 MPa) inside controlled reactors ('Ex-situ mineral carbonation'). They have identified expansive crop areas where they may add crushed basalt. In July 2020 one group of scientists assessed that the geoengineering technique of enhanced rock weathering – spreading finely crushed basalt on fields – has potential use for carbon dioxide removal by nations, identifying costs, opportunities and engineering challenges.[10][11]. The chemical effects of adding this mineral to other ecosystems are also unknown. Over geological time periods these processes are thought to stabilise the Earth's climate. through direct air capture or biomass-CCS. 107, 2010, pp. As weathering rate is a function of saturation of the dissolving mineral in solution (decreasing to zero in fully saturated solutions), some have suggested that the quantity of rainfall may limit terrestrial enhanced weathering,[7] although others[8] suggest that secondary mineral formation or biological uptake may suppress saturation and promote weathering. [15] Here the carbonate mineral (CaCO3) is transformed into lime (CaO) through calcination. Jens Hartmann et al., “Enhanced chemical weathering as a geoengineering strategy to reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide, supply nutrients and mitigate ocean acidification,” Reviews of Geophysics, Vol. In Malaysia, quarried and crushed basalt is added to oil palm plantations and is studied for its impacts on crop yield and carbon sequestration.4, Other developments in the field of enhanced weathering are limited to research projects, such as the Oxford Geoengineering Programme5 and University of Utrecht/The Olivine Foundation, in the Netherlands.6, A study on enhanced weathering lists the following possible problematic side effects: Change in pH of soils and surface waters (streams, rivers, lakes), affecting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems; change in silicon concentration of surface waters, affecting ecosystems via altered nutrient ratios; release of trace metals associated with target minerals (particularly Nickel and Chromium in the case of olivine application); generation of dust; socioeconomic and socio-political consequences for agricultural communities of a new, large-scale industrial and financial enterprise; and the environmental costs of up to three orders of magnitude increase in olivine mining globally.7, While olivine fertilization of the ocean “mimics” a natural process, it is not natural at all. 20228-20233, 11. Biological activity in soils has been shown to promote the dissolution of silicate minerals (see discussion in, but there is still uncertainty surrounding how quickly this may happen. Miriam González and Tatiana Ilyina, “Impacts of artificial ocean alkalinization on the carbon cycle and climate in Earth system simulations,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. ... and sequester it in newly-formed rock mineral, magnesium carbonate. See Olaf Schuiling and Oliver Tickell, “Olivine against climate change and ocean acidification,” Innovation Concepts, 2011, www.innovationconcepts.eu/res/literatuurSchuiling/olivineagainstclimatechange23.pdf, 2. The enhanced dissolution and carbonation of silicates ('mineral carbonation') was first proposed by Seifritz,[16] and developed initially by Lackner et al. 6, 2015, pp. Olivine would be delivered to ecosystems at rates far higher than normal, which could lead to negative consequences for ecosystems where it is introduced, such as phytoplankton blooms and anoxic dead zones, and other unknown effects on deep-sea life and thus on biogeochemical processes. Further, the Nullarbor Plain is home to the aboriginal Wangai people, who were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands once before for nuclear testing in the 1950s and have since received compensation for the injustice and have reoccupied the plain. When silicate or carbonate minerals dissolve in rainwater, carbon dioxide is drawn into the solution from the atmosphere through the reactions below (Eq.1&2) to form bicarbonate ions: Eq.1 Forsterite: Mg2SiO4 + 4CO2 + 4H2O → 2Mg2+ + 4HCO3− + H4SiO4, Eq.2 Calcite : CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O → Ca2+ + 2HCO3−. Alternatively, the direct application of carbonate minerals to the up-welling regions of the ocean has been investigated. remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, "Ever been to a green sand beach? Geoengineering Monitor is a joint project of Biofuelwatch and ETC Group, with support from Heinrich Boell Foundation. Sallie Chisholm et al., “Dis-Crediting Ocean Fertilization,” Science, Vol. While this technology will likely be cheap, the maximum annual CO2 sequestration potential is limited. The Nullarbor Plain was also given formal Wilderness Protection Status in 2011 to protect its unique environment, which contains 390 species of plants and many habitats for rare species of animals and birds.14. The amount of energy that is required for comminution depends on rate at which the minerals dissolve (less comminution is required for rapid mineral dissolution). Enhanced weathering on land (terrestrial) Mined olivine (magnesium iron silicate) is ground to a powder and either dumped on beaches where wave action disperses it into water or is spread on land. Mineral carbonation research has largely focused on the sequestration of CO2 from flue gas. Large scale mining operations would be required to implement this kind of scheme, and the process would harm ecosystems and communities. [17] and further by the Albany Research Center. At such a large scale, enhanced weathering could change the ecology of the oceans.8 Such changes could lead to an increase in the microbial organisms that produce other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide, which have much higher warming impacts than CO2.9, The amount of olivine necessary for these applications is extremely large – comparable to present day global coal mining,10 which would bring serious and vast mining impacts. Enhanced weathering or accelerated weathering refers to geoengineering approaches that use the dissolution of natural or artificially created minerals to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Chemical breakdown of rocks that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, `` been. It in newly-formed rock mineral, magnesium carbonate but there is still to... Biofuelwatch and ETC Group, with support from Heinrich Boell Foundation of adding this mineral other., 14 //smartstones.nl/, 7 broken down and dissolved on the sequestration of CO2 derived. 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