When we account for gene length differences and thus different baseline probabilities of being detected, no GO terms in the biological processes and cellular components categories were significant, and the most significant molecular function terms included serine-type endopeptidase inhibitor activity, L-ascorbic acid binding, and metalloendopeptidase activity (S6B Table). We crossed virgin females from the UAS-RNAi lines to Ubi156-GAL4 males and measured life span as described for the DGRP, but increasing the sample size to 48 replicate vials with 3 males and 3 females per genotype.