The concept of resistance was totally unknown. This means that what is considered a resource can change over time: oil, for example, was not considered such a valuable resource until the late 19 th century onwards. Only natural things or substances, freely bestowed by mother earth, can be consid­ered resource. Since time immemorial, consciousness about resource is a part of both individual and society. Ownership is another parameter to classify resource. This means that what is considered a resource can change over time: oil, for example, was not considered such a valuable resource until the late 19th century onwards. Information about minerals—coal, petroleum, iron ore, copper etc., about agriculture — HYV seeds, pesticides, insecticides etc., about manufacturing industry—the invention of steam en­gines, boilers, turbines, converters etc., were possible with the increasing scientific knowl­edge. 6. The above definitions vary markedly and fail miserably to produce any comprehensive universally accepted meaning of resource. Bihar has about double the total resources of Japan. Anything satisfying human wants can be termed resource—be it tangible or not. Resource cannot be created. measurements of geographic communities. The process of economic development is directly proportional with the rate of conversion of neutral stuff into resource. they can be exchanged for money. Physical boundaries include oceans, cliffs, or valleys. What is considered neutral stuff today may transform into resource tomorrow. Human populations were not considered as resource. In fact, when human beings began community life to attain security and opulence- individuals started to gather wealth and power for future resource creation. So, resource creation process is not static, it is dynamic in nature. Fertility of soil is resource but barrenness is resistance. Examples of flow resources include fish stocks, forests, fresh water, wind, solar energy and tidal range. So, wealth must possess Utility, Function ability, Scarcity and Transferability. Only in 1933, when the eminent professor of economics Erich W. Zimmermann promulgated his famous “Concept of Resource”, the idea became so popular that numerous articles and papers started pouring in the contemporary Economic Geographical literature. 4. This statement of Zimmermann clearly states that resource creation is a function of space and time. Some flow resources require careful management by human society in order to ensure their continuous availability, such as fish stocks or forests. (ii) Inorganic resources like iron ore, manganese, mica etc. On the basis of durability, resources may be classified into two groups: 1. So, the concept of resource is dynamic and re­source study is a dynamic science. 3. Without human effort resource cannot be created because man is the ultimate consumer of resource. Key Terms. For example, metals are gold, silver, copper or bronze have economic value; i.e. Subsequently, governments started to agree with different community leaders to ensure the preservation of their natural resources. In other words, the word resource is an abstraction reflecting human appraisal and relating to a func­tion or … This is because of scientific knowledge, expertise and greater economic development. These are known as critical flow resources. TOS 7. Plagiarism Prevention 4. owned by any indi­vidual is known as individual resources. Definition of Water Resources Geography: Study of Water Resources Geography as a separate branch is being done for the last five decades. Flow or inexhaustible resources — supply of resource remains unchanged even after renewed use, e.g., river water, sea-wave, sunshine, airflow etc. The value of each such resource depends on its utility and other factors. Anything or substance, be it tangible or intangible, should be either resource or neutral stuff. With increasing knowledge, function of resource may en­hance. But wealth is always measurable, i.e., wealth can be expressed in terms of measuring units, like rupees. On the contrary, resource may be tangible as well as intangible substances. According to the prevailing changes in society in different era, the concept of resources had also gone through changes —in harmony with space and time. Whilst definitions can vary, a resource is something which human society attaches value to due to its usefulness. Man is, of course, the most important and integral part of resource creation, as he is situated in the top of the hierarchy of resource consumption. In fact, resources evolve out of the dynamic interaction of all these factors”. The function ability is also the function of space and time. Some Discarded Ideas and Popular Misconceptions about Resources 4. Only the quantum and magnitude of substances, not their usability or function ability and quality, were measured. Resource, Resistance and Neutral Stuff 5. A primitive man may not be able to harness resource from a substance but a supra-animal modern man may, by his scientific Midas touch, transform such simple substance into a precious resource. Renewable resource definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Functional Theory of Resources 6. In this context we can recall the legendary remarks of Prof. Zimmermann: “man’s own wisdom is his premier resource—the key resource that unlocks the universe”. It was considered as a study of hydro­sphere in the beginning, which included groundwater besides oceanic water. Everything in our environment which can be used to satisfy our needs and is technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally acceptable is termed as ‘Resource’.Human beings themselves are essential components of resources. Anything or any process that restricts substance becoming resource is called neutral stuff. So, resource creation is a continuous and need-based operation. A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced and that has some utility. 214 High Street, The sum total of resources of the inhabitants of the nation and resources of the nation itself. With the passage of time, with in­creasing knowledge, man was able to harness more resource from same amount of stuff. In those days, widespread belief was ‘Resource cannot be created’. The paper investigates the various concepts of geographic communities found in the literature and reviews existing studies to determine how researchers measure geographic communities in practice. Resource incorporates much more than wealth in a sense that culture, technology, innovative power, skill and differ­ent other aspects are included in the realm of resource. The advancement of modern civilization is synonymous with the transformation of neutral stuff into resource. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. This inverse relationship is the key issue in the overall scheme of resource creation. On the basis of availability of resources, it can be classified into two groups: Ubiquitous type of raw materials are found everywhere, e.g., sunshine, air etc. Resource must possess two important properties: To define anything or substance as resource, one must critically examine whether it has the property of both utility or function ability. 7. If these are exploited too intensively such that they can no longer be renewed, then they become stock (non-renewable) resources. Invisible or intangible aspects — peace, culture, wisdom, policy, decisions, knowhow, knowledge, freedom—cannot be considered as resource. Dynamic Concept of Resource 7. If resourcefulness is considered as positive aspect of resource, resistance is the opposite to that of resource like assets and liabilities or profit and loss. Geo-thermal energy in this contemporary world is considered to be the most useful resource, but, till recently, this heat-flow was not considered as resource—because man was absolutely ignorant about its uses. If anything or substance does not contain function ability or utility value, it is termed neutral stuff. In contrast to stock resources, flow resources are renewed within a short timescale, either through natural physical systems or biotic reproduction. There is a total antagonistic relationship between resource and resistance—like light and shade. In this connection, the concept of neutral stuff has been introduced by Prof. Zimmermann. Material resources may, again, be sub-divided into two groups: (i) Organic resources like forest, fish, livestock etc. For example, a bottle of poison has function ability but it has got no utility value as food. In day-to-day life, a common man often uses the terms resource and wealth for same purpose and meaning. Proven reserves of petroleum in the midst of inaccessible terrain or in the abyss is not considered resource as they fail to yield any satisfaction to either society or individual. In geography, boundaries separate different regions of Earth. In other words, the word resource is an abstraction reflecting human appraisal and relating to a func­tion or operation”. The major popular misconceptions about resource in earlier periods were: 1. 5. Other flow resources do not depend on human management, such as solar energy, wind or tides. Product of expansion of human information base, other assessments and the summer exams for A-Level... 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