Projection keyboards can simulate a full size keyboard from a very small projector. are used to integrate external devices. Function- and arrow keys are nearly always present. Hardware key loggers are attached to the keyboard cable or installed inside standard keyboards. Navigation keys or cursor keys include a variety of keys which move the cursor to different positions on the screen. Modern keyboard models contain a set number of total keys according to their given standard, described as 101, 104, 105, etc. Software keyboards or on-screen keyboards often take the form of computer programs that display an image of a keyboard on the screen. Keyboard key legends must be extremely durable over tens of millions of depressions, since they are subjected to extreme mechanical wear from fingers and fingernails, and subject to hand oils and creams, so engraving and filling key legends with paint, as was done previously for individual switches, was never acceptable. Pause software reminds the user to pause frequently. This key was created at the same time as the Windows key. [11] Modern keyboards matching US conventions typically have 104 keys while the 105 key layout is the norm in the rest of the world. Chorded keyboards are less desirable in many cases because it usually takes practice and memorization of the combinations to become proficient. ", "It combines the body of a game controller with the functions of both a trackball and a keyboard. But, to save cost, other methods were explored, such as sublimation printing and laser engraving, both methods which could be used to print a whole keyboard at the same time. Customized keyboards, with special buttons and features, seem to be the rule, not the exception. Many gaming keyboards are designed to have an aesthetic as well as functional appeal, with multiple colours, and colour-coded keys to make it easier for gamers to find command keys while playing in a dark room. Computer keyboards include control circuitry to convert key presses into key codes[42] (usually scancodes) that the computer's electronics can understand. On some Samsung keyboards the cursor in the icon is not present, showing the menu only. ANSI standard alphanumeric keyboards have keys that are on three-quarter inch centers (0.75 inches (19 mm)), and have a key travel of at least 0.15 inches (3.8 mm). The most popular switch types were reed switches (contacts enclosed in a vacuum in a glass capsule, affected by a magnet mounted on the switch plunger). [30] The DEC VT50, introduced July 1974, also had an Esc key. Earlier, Herman Hollerith developed the first keypunch devices, which soon evolved to include keys for text and number entry akin to normal typewriters by the 1930s. Another common application today of the Esc key is to trigger the Stop button in many web browsers.[29]. [39] There was simply a sponge pad with a conductive-coated Mylar plastic sheet on the switch plunger, and two half-moon trace patterns on the printed circuit board below. Hackers use keyloggers as a means to obtain passwords or encryption keys and thus bypass other security measures. Software keyboards have become very popular in touchscreen enabled cell phones, due to the additional cost and space requirements of other types of hardware keyboards. This keypad also doubles as a cursor keypad; the Num Lock key determines its behavior. It was through such devices that modern computer keyboards inherited their layouts. This technology has also reached an advanced state and is implemented in various software products. [37] Many keyboards not otherwise illuminated may have small LED indicator lights in a few important function keys, or elsewhere on the housing, if their function is activated (see photo). They are often used to facilitate data entry with smaller keyboards that do not have a numeric keypad, commonly those of laptop computers. New generation multifunctional keyboards feature a touchscreen display to stream video, control audio visual media and alarms, execute application inputs, configure individual desktop environments, etc. Many, but not all, computer keyboards have a numeric keypad to the right of the alphabetic keyboard, often separated from the other groups of keys such as the function keys and system command keys, which contains numbers, basic mathematical symbols (e.g., addition, subtraction, etc. The repertoire of glyphs engraved on the keys of a keyboard accords with national conventions and language needs. Cursor-control keys: Often called arrow keys, these four keys move the text cursor in the direction of their arrows. A wireless keyboard may use industry standard Bluetooth radio communication, in which case the receiver may be built into the computer. Unencrypted wireless Bluetooth keyboards are known to be vulnerable to signal theft by placing a covert listening device in the same room as the keyboard to sniff and record Bluetooth packets for the purpose of logging keys typed by the user.


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